martin fell off his skateboard and badly bruised his elbow. he immediately began rubbing the area around the bruise until the pain subsided. this method of reducing pain can be explained by which of the following??

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Martin fell off his skateboard and badly bruised his elbow. He immediately began rubbing the area around the bruise until the pain subsided. This method of reducing pain can be explained by which of the following? A Gate-control theory B Opponent-process theory C Trichromatic theory D Expectancy theory E Phantom pain